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OHIO CORE STANDARDS

 

Kindergarten

 

K.1.    Living and nonliving things have specific physical properties that can be used to sort and classify. The physical properties of air and water are presented as they apply to weather.

 

Grade 1

 

1.1          Sun, Energy and Weather

 

1.2          Motion and Materials

 

1.3          Energy is observed through movement, heating, cooling and the needs of living organisms.

 

Grade 2

 

2.1          The Atmosphere

 

2.2          Changes in Motion

 

2.3          Living and nonliving things may move. A moving object has energy. Air moving is wind and wind can make a windmill turn. Changes in energy and movement can cause change to organisms and the environments in which they live.

 

Grade 3

 

3.1          Earth’s Resources

 

3.2          Matter and Forms of Energy

 

3.3          Matter is what makes up all living and nonliving substances on Earth. Matter has specific properties and exists in different states. Earth’s resources are made of matter. Matter can be used by living things for materials and energy. There are many different forms of energy. Each living component of an ecosystem is composed of matter and uses energy.

 

Grade 4

 

4.1          Earth’s Surface

 

4.2          Electricity, Heat and Matter

 

4.3          Heat and electrical energy are forms of energy that can be transferred from one location to another. Matter has properties that allow the transfer of heat and electrical energy. Heating and cooling affect the weathering of Earth’s surface and Earth’s past environments. The processes that shape Earth’s surface and the fossil evidence found can help decode Earth’s history.

 

Grade 5

 

5.1          Light, Sound and Motion

 

5.2          Cycles on Earth, such as those occurring in ecosystems, in the solar system, and in the movement of light and sound result in describable patterns. Speed is a measurement of movement. Change in speed is related to force and mass. The transfer of energy drives changes in systems, including ecosystems and physical systems.

 

Grade 6

 

6.1          Matter and Motion

 

6.2          Cellular to Multicellular

 

6.3          All matter is made of small particles called atoms. The properties of matter are based on the order and organization of atoms and molecules. Cells, minerals, rocks and soil are all examples of matter.

 

6.4          Order and Organization- This theme focuses on helping students use scientific inquiry to discover patterns, trends, structures and relationships that may be inferred from simple principles. These principles are related to the properties or interactions within and between systems.

 

VIRGINIA CORE STANDARDS

 

Kindergarten

 

K.1     The student will demonstrate an understanding of scientific and engineering practices by

A.       asking questions and defining problems

·      ask questions based on observations

·      identify a problem based on need

·      make predictions based on observations

B.       planning and carrying out investigations

·      make observations to collect data

·      identify characteristics and properties of objects through observations

·      measure the relative length and weight of common objects

·      record information from investigations

C.       interpreting, analyzing, and evaluating data

·      describe patterns

·      classify and/or sequence objects based on a single physical characteristic or property

·      organize and represent data

·      read and interpret data in object graphs, picture graphs, and tables

D.      constructing and critiquing conclusions and explanations

·      make simple conclusions based on data or observations

E.       developing and using models

·      distinguish between a model and an actual object

F.       obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information

·      communicate comparative measures (e.g., heavier, lighter, longer, shorter, more, less, hotter, colder)

·      communicate observations using pictures, drawings, and/or speech

 

K.3     The student will investigate and understand that physical properties of an object can be described. Properties include

A.       colors;

B.       shapes and forms;

C.       textures and feel; and

D.      relative sizes and weights of objects.

 

K.4     The student will investigate and understand that water is important in our daily lives and has properties. Key ideas include

A.       water has many uses;

B.       water can be found in many places;

C.       water occurs in different phases; and

D.      water flows downhill.

 

K.5     The students will investigate and understand that senses allow humans to seek, find, take in, and react or respond to different information. Key ideas include

A.       the five basic senses correspond to specific human body structures; and

B.       senses are used in our daily lives.

 

K.8     The student will investigate and understand that light influences temperature on Earth’s surfaces and can cause shadows. Key ideas include

A.       the sun provides light and warms Earth’s surface;

B.       shadows can be produced when sunlight or artificial light is blocked by an object; and

C.       objects in shadows and objects in sunlight have different temperatures.

 

K.9     The student will investigate and understand that there are patterns in nature. Key patterns include

A.       daily weather;

B.       seasonal changes; and

C.       day and night.

 

K.10  The student will investigate and understand that change occurs over time. Key ideas include

A.       natural and human-made things change over time;

B.       living and nonliving things change over time;

C.       changes can be observed and measured; and

D.      changes may be fast or slow.

 

K.11  The student will investigate and understand that humans use resources. Key ideas include

A.       some materials and objects can be used over and over again;

B.       materials can be recycled; and

C.       choices we make impact the air, water, land and living things.

 

Grade 1

 

1.1    The student will demonstrate an understanding of scientific and engineering practices by

A.       asking questions and defining problems

·      ask questions and make predictions based on observations

·      identify a simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new tool or improved object

B.       planning and carrying out investigations

·      with guidance, conduct investigations to produce data

·      identify characteristics and properties of objects by observations

·      use tools to measure relative length, weight, volume, and temperature of common objects

C.       interpreting, analyzing, and evaluating data

·      use and share pictures, drawings, and/or writings of observations

·      describe patterns and relationships

·      classify and arrange objects based on a single physical characteristic or property

·      organize and represent various forms of data using tables, picture graphs, and object graphs

·      read and interpret data displayed in tables, picture graphs, and object graphs, using the vocabulary more, less, fewer, greater than, less than, and equal to

D.      constructing and critiquing conclusions and explanations

·      make simple conclusions based on data or observations

·      recognize unusual or unexpected results

E.       developing and using models

·      use physical models to demonstrate simple phenomena and natural processes

·      obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information

·      communicate observations and data using simple graphs, pictures, drawings, numbers, speech and/or writing

 

1.2          The student will investigate and understand that objects can move in different ways. Key ideas include

A.       objects may have straight, circular, spinning, and back-and-forth motions; and

B.       objects may vibrate and produce sound.

 

1.3     The student will investigate and understand that objects are made from materials that can be described by their physical properties. Key ideas include

A.       objects are made of one or more materials with different physical properties and can be used for a variety of purposes;

B.       when a material is changed in size most physical properties remain the same; and

C.       the type and amount of material determine how much light can pass through an object.

 

1.4     The student will investigate and understand that plants have basic life needs and functional parts that allow them to survive. Key ideas include

A.       plants need nutrients, air, water, light, and a place to grow;

B.       structures of plants perform specific functions; and

C.       plants can be classified based on a variety of characteristics.

 

1.5     The student will investigate and understand that animals, including humans, have basic life needs that allow them to survive. Key ideas include

A.       animals need air, food, water, shelter, and space (habitat);

B.       animals have different physical characteristics that perform specific functions; and

C.       animals can be classified based on a variety of characteristics.

 

1.6     The student will investigate and understand that there is a relationship between the sun and Earth. Key ideas include

A.       the sun is the source of energy and light that warms the Earth’s land, air, and water; and

B.       the sun’s relative position changes in the Earth’s sky throughout the day.

 

1.7     The student will investigate and understand that there are weather and seasonal changes. Key ideas include

A.       changes in temperature, light, and precipitation occur over time;

B.       there are relationships between daily weather and the season; and

C.       changes in temperature, light, and precipitation affect plants and animals, including humans.

 

1.8     The student will investigate and understand that natural resources can be used responsibly. Key ideas include

A.       most natural resources are limited;

B.       human actions can affect the availability of natural resources; and

C.       reducing, reusing, and recycling are ways to conserve natural resources.

Grade 2

 

2.1     The student will demonstrate an understanding of scientific and engineering practices by

A.       asking questions and defining problems

·      ask questions that can be investigated

·      make predictions based on observations and prior experiences

·      identify a simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new tool or improved object

B.       planning and carrying out investigations

·      with guidance, plan and conduct simple investigations to produce data

·      use appropriate tools to measure length, weight, and temperature of common objects using U.S. Customary units

·      measure time intervals using proper tools

C.       interpreting, analyzing, and evaluating data

·      organize and represent data in pictographs and bar graphs

·      read and interpret data represented in pictographs and bar graphs

D.      constructing and critiquing conclusions and explanations

·      make simple conclusions based on data or observations

·      distinguish between opinion and evidence

·      recognize unusual or unexpected results

E.       developing and using models

·      use models to demonstrate simple phenomena and natural processes

F.       obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information

·      communicate observations and data using simple graphs, drawings, numbers, speech, and/or writing

 

2.3     The student will investigate and understand that matter can exist in different phases. Key ideas include

A.       matter has mass and takes up space;

B.       solids, liquids, and gases have different characteristics; and

C.       heating and cooling can change the phases of matter.

 

2.6     The student will investigate and understand that there are different types of weather on Earth. Key ideas include

A.       different types of weather have specific characteristics;

B.       measuring, recording, and interpreting weather data allows for identification of weather patterns; and

C.       tracking weather allows us to prepare for the weather and storms.

 

2.7     The student will investigate and understand that weather patterns and seasonal changes affect plants, animals, and their surroundings. Key ideas include

A.       weather and seasonal changes affect the growth and behavior of living things;

B.       wind and weather can change the land; and

C.       changes can happen quickly or slowly over time.

 

2.8     The student will investigate and understand that plants are important natural resources. Key ideas include

A.       the availability of plant products affects the development of a geographic area;

B.       plants provide oxygen, homes, and food for many animals; and

C.       plants can help reduce the impact of wind and water.

           

Grade 3

 

3.1     The student will demonstrate an understanding of scientific and engineering practices by

A.       asking questions and defining problems

·      ask questions that can be investigated and predict reasonable outcomes

·      ask questions about what would happen if a variable is changed

·      define a simple design problem that can be solved through the development of an object, tool, process, or system

B.       planning and carrying out investigations

·      with guidance, plan and conduct investigations

·      use appropriate methods and/or tools for collecting data

·      estimate length, mass, volume, and temperature

·      measure length, mass, volume, and temperature in metric and U.S. Customary units using proper tools

·      measure elapsed time

·      use tools and/or materials to design and/or build a device that solves a specific problem

C.       interpreting, analyzing, and evaluating data

·      organize and represent data in pictographs or bar graphs

·      read, interpret, and analyze data represented in pictographs and bar graphs

·      analyze data from tests of an object or tool to determine if it works as intended

D.      constructing and critiquing conclusions and explanations

·      use evidence (measurements, observations, patterns) to construct or support an explanation

·      generate and/or compare multiple solutions to a problem

·      describe how scientific ideas apply to design solutions

E.       developing and using models

·      use models to demonstrate simple phenomena and natural processes

·      develop a model (e.g., diagram or simple physical prototype) to illustrate a proposed object, tool, or process

F.       obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information

·      read and comprehend reading-level appropriate texts and/or other reliable media

·      communicate scientific information, design ideas, and/or solutions with others

 

3.8     The student will investigate and understand that natural events and humans influence ecosystems. Key ideas include

A.       human activity affects the quality of air, water, and habitats;

B.       water is limited and needs to be conserved;

C.       fire, flood, disease, and erosion affect ecosystems; and

D.      soil is a natural resource and should be conserved.

 

Grade 4

 

4.1     The student will demonstrate an understanding of scientific and engineering practices by

A.    asking questions and defining problems

·      identify scientific and non-scientific questions

·      develop hypotheses as cause-and-effect relations

·      define a simple design problem that can be solved through the development of an object, tool, process, or system

B.    planning and carrying out investigations

·      identify variables when planning an investigation

·      collaboratively plan and conduct investigations

·      use tools and/or materials to design and/or build a device that solves a specific problem

·      take metric measurements using appropriate tools

·      measure elapsed time

C.    interpreting, analyzing, and evaluating data

·      organize and represent data in bar graphs and line graphs

·      interpret and analyze data represented in bar graphs and line graphs

·      compare two different representations of the same data (e.g., a set of data displayed on a chart and a graph)

·      analyze data from tests of an object or tool to determine whether it works as intended

D.    constructing and critiquing conclusions and explanations

·      use evidence (i.e., measurements, observations, patterns) to construct or support explanations and to make inferences

E.     developing and using models

·      develop and/or use models to explain natural phenomena

·      identify limitations of models

F.     obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information

·      read and comprehend reading-level-appropriate texts and/or other reliable media

·      communicate scientific information, design ideas, and/or solutions with others

 

4.4          The student will investigate and understand that organisms, including humans, interact with one another and with the nonliving components in the ecosystem. Key ideas include

A.    interrelationships exist in populations, communities, and ecosystems;

B.    food webs show the flow of energy within an ecosystem;

C.    changes in an organism’s niche and habitat may occur at various stages in its life cycle; and

D.    classification can be used to identify organisms.

 

4.4     The student will investigate and understand that weather conditions and phenomena affect ecosystems and can be predicted. Key ideas include

A.    weather measurements create a record that can be used to make weather predictions;

B.    common and extreme weather events affect ecosystems; and

C.    long term seasonal weather trends determine the climate of a region.

 

4.7     The student will investigate and understand that the ocean environment has characteristics. Key characteristics include

A.    geology of the ocean floor;

B.    physical properties and movement of ocean water; and

C.    interaction of organisms in the ocean. 

 

Grade 5

 

5.1     The student will demonstrate an understanding of scientific and engineering practices by

A.    asking questions and defining problems

·      ask testable questions based on observations and predict reasonable outcomes based on patterns

·      develop hypotheses as cause-and-effect relationship

·      define design problems that can be solved through the development of an object, tool, process, or system

B.    planning and carrying out investigations

·      collaboratively plan and conduct investigations to produce data

·      identify independent variable, dependent variables, and constants

·      determine data that should be collected to answer a testable question

·      take metric measurements using appropriate tools

·      use tools and/or materials to design and/or build a device that solves a specific problem

C.    interpreting, analyzing, and evaluating data

·      represent and analyze data using tables and graphs

·      organize simple data sets to reveal patterns that suggest relationships

·      compare and contrast data collected by different groups and discuss similarities and differences in their findings

·      use data to evaluate and refine design solutions

D.    constructing and critiquing conclusions and explanations

·      construct and/or support arguments with evidence, data, and/or a model

·      describe how scientific ideas apply to design solutions

·      generate and compare multiple solutions to problems based on how well they meet the criteria and constraints

E.     developing and using models

·      develop models using an analogy, example, or abstract representation to describe a scientific principle or design solution

·      identify limitations of models

F.     obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information

·      read and comprehend reading-level-appropriate texts and/or other reliable media

·      communicate scientific information, design ideas, and/or solutions with others

 

5.3          The student will investigate and understand that energy can take many forms.  Key ideas include

A.    energy is the ability to do work or to cause change;

B.    there are many different forms of energy;

C.    energy can be transformed; and

D.    energy is conserved.

 

5.4     The student will investigate and understand that electricity is transmitted and used in daily life. Key ideas include

A.    electricity flows easily through conductors but not insulators;

B.    electricity flows through closed circuits;

C.    static electricity can be generated by rubbing certain materials together;

D.    electrical energy can be transformed into radiant, mechanical, and thermal energy; and

E.     a current flowing through a wire creates a magnetic field.

 

5.5     The student will investigate and understand that sound can be produced and transmitted. Key ideas include

A.    sound is produced when an object or substance vibrates;

B.    sound is the transfer of energy;

C.    different media transmit sound differently; and

D.    sound waves have many uses and applications.

 

5.6     The student will investigate and understand that visible light has certain characteristics and behaves in predictable ways. Key ideas include

A.    visible light is radiant energy that moves in transverse waves;

B.    the visible spectrum includes light with different wavelengths;

C.    matter influences the path of light; and

D.    radiant energy can be transformed into thermal, mechanical, and electrical energy.

           

5.7     The student will investigate and understand that matter has properties and interactions. Key ideas include

A.    matter is composed of atoms;

B.    substances can be mixed together without changes in their physical properties; and

C.    energy has an effect on the phases of matter.

 

5.9     The student will investigate and understand that the conservation of energy resources is important. Key ideas include

A.    some sources of energy are considered renewable and others are not;

B.    individuals and communities have means of conserving both energy and matter; and

C.    advances in technology improve the ability to transfer and transform energy.

 

Grade 6

 

6.1     The student will demonstrate an understanding of scientific and engineering practices by

A.    asking questions and defining problems

·      ask questions to determine relationships between independent and dependent variables

·      develop hypotheses and identify independent and dependent variables

·      offer simple solutions to design problems

B.    planning and carrying out investigations

·      independently and collaboratively plan and conduct observational and experimental investigations; identify variables, constants, and controls where appropriate, and include the safe use of chemicals and equipment

·      evaluate the accuracy of various methods for collecting data

·      take metric measurements using appropriate tools

·      use tools and materials to design and/or build a device to solve a specific problem

C.    interpreting, analyzing, and evaluating data

·      organize data sets to reveal patterns that suggest relationships

·      construct, analyze, and interpret graphical displays of data

·      compare and contrast data collected by different groups and discuss similarities and differences in findings

·      use data to evaluate and refine design solutions

D.    constructing and critiquing conclusions and explanations

·      construct explanations that includes qualitative or quantitative relationships between variables

·      construct scientific explanations based on valid and reliable evidence obtained from sources (including the students’ own investigations)

·      generate and compare multiple solutions to problems based on how well they meet the criteria and constraints

E.     developing and using models

·      use scale models to represent and estimate distance

·      use, develop, and revise models to predict and explain phenomena

·      evaluate limitations of models

F.     obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information

·      read scientific texts, including those adapted for classroom use, to obtain scientific and/or technical information

·      gather, read, and synthesize information from multiple appropriate sources and assess the credibility, accuracy, and possible bias of each publication

·      construct, use, and/or present an argument supported by empirical evidence and scientific reasoning

 

6.5          The student will investigate and understand that there are basic sources of energy and that energy can be transformed. Key ideas include

A.    the sun is important in the formation of most energy sources on Earth;

B.    Earth’s energy budget relates to living systems and Earth’s processes;

C.    radiation, conduction, and convection distribute energy; and

D.    energy transformations are important in energy usage.

 

6.5     The student will investigate and understand that all matter is composed of atoms. Key ideas include

A.    atoms consist of particles, including electrons, protons, and neutrons;

B.    atoms of a particular element are similar but differ from atoms of other elements;

C.    elements may be represented by chemical symbols;

D.    two or more atoms interact to form new substances, which are held together by electrical forces (bonds);

E.     compounds may be represented by chemical formulas;

F.     chemical equations can be used to model chemical changes; and

G.    a few elements comprise the largest portion of the solid Earth, living matter, the oceans, and the atmosphere.

 

6.6     The student will investigate and understand that water has unique physical properties and has a role in the natural and human-made environment. Key ideas include

A.    water is referred to as the universal solvent;

B.    water has specific properties;

C.    thermal energy has a role in phase changes;

D.    water has a role in weathering;

E.     large bodies of water moderate climate; and

F.     water is important for agriculture, power generation, and public health.

 

6.7     The student will investigate and understand that air has properties and that Earth’s atmosphere has structure and is dynamic. Key ideas include

A.    air is a mixture of gaseous elements and compounds;

B.    the atmosphere has physical characteristics;

C.    properties of the atmosphere change with altitude;

D.    there is a relationship between air movement, thermal energy, and weather conditions;

E.     atmospheric measures are used to predict weather conditions; and

F.     weather maps give basic information about fronts, systems, and weather measurements.

 

6.9     The student will investigate and understand that humans impact the environment and individuals can influence public policy decisions related to energy and the environment. Key ideas include

A.    natural resources are important to protect and maintain;

B.    renewable and nonrenewable resources can be managed;

C.    major health and safety issues are associated with air and water quality;

D.    major health and safety issues are related to different forms of energy;

E.     preventive measures can protect land-use and reduce environmental hazards; and

F.     there are cost/benefit tradeoffs in conservation policies.

 

WEST VIRGINIA CORE STANDARDS

 

Kindergarten

 

S.K.GS.4  Students will construct an argument supported by evidence for how plants and animals (including humans) can change the environment to meet their needs.

 

S.K.GS.5  Students will use a model to represent the relationship between the needs of different plants or animals (including humans) and the places they live.

 

S.K.GS.6  Students will communicate solutions that will reduce the impact of humans on the land, water, air, and/or other living things in the local environment.

 

S.K.GS.8  Students will ask questions to obtain information about the purpose of weather forecasting to prepare for, and respond to, severe weather.

 

S.K.GS.9  Students will make observations to determine the effect of sunlight on Earth’s surface.

 

Grade 1

 

S.1.GS.4  Students will use tools and materials to design and build a device that uses light or sound to solve the problem of communicating over a distance.

 

Grade 2

 

S.2.GS.1  Students will plan and conduct an investigation to describe and classify different kinds of materials by their observable properties.

 

S.2.GS.2  Students will analyze data obtained from testing different materials to determine which materials have the properties that are best suited for an intended purpose.

 

S.2.GS.3  Students will make observations to construct an evidence-based account of how an object made of a small set of pieces can be disassembled and made into a new object.

 

Grades K-2

 

S.K-2.ETS.1  Students will ask questions, make observations, and gather information about a situation people want to change to define a simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new or improved object or tool.

 

S.K-2.ETS.2  Students will develop a simple sketch, drawing, or physical model to illustrate how the shape of an object helps it function as needed to solve a given problem.

 

S.K-2.ETS.3  Students will analyze data from tests of two objects designed to solve the same problem to compare the strengths and weaknesses of how each performs.

 

Grade 3

 

S.3.GS.3     Students will ask questions to determine cause and effect relationships of electric or magnetic interactions between two objects not in contact with each other.

 

S.3.GS.15   Students will make a claim about the merit of a design solution that reduces the impacts of a weather-related hazard.

 

Grade 4

 

S.4.GS.2    Students will make observations to provide evidence that energy can be transferred from place to place by sound, light, heat, and electric currents.

 

S.4.GS.3    Students will ask questions and predict outcomes about the changes in energy that occur when objects collide.

 

S.4.GS.4    Students will apply scientific ideas to design, test, and refine a device that converts energy from one form to another.

 

S.4.GS.5    Students will obtain and combine information to describe that energy and fuels are derived from natural resources and their uses affect the environment.

 

S.4.GS.7    Students will generate and compare multiple solutions that use patterns to transfer information.

 

S.4.GS.8    Students will develop a model to describe that light reflecting from objects and entering the eye allows objects to be seen.

 

Grade 5

 

S.5.GS.2.   Students will measure and graph quantities to provide evidence that regardless of the type of change that occurs when heating, cooling, or mixing substances, the total weight of matter is conserved.

 

S.5.GS.3.   Students will make observations and measurements to identify materials based on their properties

 

S.5.GS.4.   Students will conduct an investigation to determine whether the mixing of two or more substances results in new substances.

 

S.5.GS.10  Students will obtain and combine information about ways individual communities use science ideas to protect the Earth’s resources and environment.

 

Grades 3-5

 

S.3-5.ETS.1.  Students will define a simple design problem reflecting a need or a want that includes specified criteria for success and constraints on materials, time, or cost.

 

S.3-5.ETS.2.  Students will generate and compare multiple possible solutions to a problem based on how well each is likely to meet the criteria and constraints of the problem.

 

S.3-5.ETS.3.  Students will plan and carry out fair tests in which variables are controlled and failure points are considered to identify aspects of a model or prototype that can be improved.

 

Grade 6

 

S.6.LS.1.  Students will construct an explanation that predicts patterns of interactions among organisms across multiple ecosystems.

 

S.6.LS.2   Students will evaluate competing design solutions for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem services.

 

S.6.LS.5.  Students will analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for the effects of resource availability on organisms and populations of organisms in an ecosystem.

 

S.6.LS.6.  Students will develop a model to describe the cycling of matter and flow of energy among living and nonliving parts of an ecosystem.

 

S.6.LS.7.  Students will construct an argument supported by empirical evidence that changes to physical or biological components of an ecosystem affect populations.

 

S.6.ESS.6   Students will ask questions to clarify evidence of the factors that have caused the change in global temperatures over the past century.

 

S.6.ESS.7   Students will analyze and interpret data on natural hazards to forecast future catastrophic events and inform the development of technologies to mitigate their effects.

 

PENNSYLVANIA CORE STANDARDS

 

Kindergarten

 

S.K-2.A.1.1.1   Identify a scientific fact as something that can be observed using the five senses.

 

S.K-2.A.1.1.2   Identify examples of technology.

 

S.K-2.A.1.1.3   Describe how technology can help people (e.g., home appliances, phones, computers, transportation).

 

S.K-2.A.2.1.1   Understand that making a change to an investigation may change the outcome(s) of the investigation.

 

S.K-2.A.2.1.2   Describe outcomes of an investigation.

 

S.K-2.A.2.2.1   Identify simple tools that can be used in an investigation (e.g., measuring cup, hand lens, ruler, balance scale, thermometer).

 

S.K-2.A.3.1.1   Describe a system as being made of multiple parts that work together.

 

Grade 1

 

S.K-2.A.1.1.1   Identify a scientific fact as something that can be observed using the five senses.

 

S.K-2.A.1.1.2   Identify examples of technology.

 

S.K-2.A.1.1.3   Describe how technology can help people (e.g., home appliances, phones, computers, transportation).

 

S.K-2.A.2.1.1   Understand that making a change to an investigation may change the outcome(s) of the investigation.

 

S.K-2.A.2.1.2   Describe outcomes of an investigation.

 

S.K-2.A.2.2.1   Identify simple tools that can be used in an investigation (e.g., measuring cup, hand lens, ruler, balance scale, thermometer).

 

S.K-2.A.3.1.1   Describe a system as being made of multiple parts that work together.

 

Grade 2

 

S.K-2.C.1.1.1   Describe basic changes to properties of matter (e.g., formation of mixtures and solutions, baking and cooking, freezing, heating, evaporating, melting).

 

Grade 3

 

S3.A.1.1.1   Distinguish between fact and opinion.

 

S3.A.1.1.2   Identify examples of common technological changes, past and present, in the community (e.g., energy production, transportation, communication, recycling).

 

S3.A.2.1.1   Generate questions about objects, organisms, or events that can be answered through scientific investigations.

 

S3.A.2.1.2   Make predictions based on observations.

 

S3.A.2.1.3   Identify the variables in a simple investigation.

 

S3.A.2.2.1   Identify appropriate tools or instruments for specific tasks, and describe the information they provide (i.e., measuring [length—ruler; mass— balance scale] and making observations [hand lenses—very small objects]).

 

S3.A.3.1.1   Classify systems as either human-made or natural (e.g., human-made systems [balancing systems, tops, wheel and axle systems, pencil sharpeners from manual to electric]; natural systems [plants, animals, water cycle, stream]).

 

S3.A.3.1.2   Identify changes in natural or humanmade systems.

 

S3.A.3.2.1   Identify what models represent (e.g., simple maps showing mountains, valleys, lakes, and rivers; dioramas).

 

S3.B.3.2.2   Describe how changes in the environment (e.g., fire, flood) can affect an ecosystem.

 

S3.B.3.2.3   Describe how human interactions with the environment impact an ecosystem (e.g., road construction, pollution, urban development, dam building).

 

S3.D.1.2.1   Describe why certain resources are renewable and other resources are nonrenewable.

 

S3.D.1.2.2   Identify and describe examples of renewable and nonrenewable resources.

 

S3.A.1.1.1   Distinguish between fact and opinion.

 

S3.A.1.1.2   Identify examples of common technological changes, past and present, in the community (e.g., energy production, transportation, communication, recycling).

 

S3.A.2.1.1   Generate questions about objects, organisms, or events that can be answered through scientific investigations.

 

S3.A.2.1.2   Make predictions based on observations.

 

S3.A.2.1.3   Identify the variables in a simple investigation.

 

S3.A.2.2.1   Identify appropriate tools or instruments for specific tasks, and describe the information they provide (i.e., measuring [length—ruler; mass— balance scale] and making observations [hand lenses—very small objects]).

 

S3.A.3.1.1   Classify systems as either human-made or natural (e.g., human-made systems [balancing systems, tops, wheel and axle systems, pencil sharpeners from manual to electric]; natural systems [plants, animals, water cycle, stream]).

 

S3.A.3.1.2   Identify changes in natural or humanmade systems.

 

S3.A.3.2.1   Identify what models represent (e.g., simple maps showing mountains, valleys, lakes, and rivers; dioramas).

 

S3.B.3.1.2   Describe the interactions between living and nonliving components of an ecosystem (e.g., plants [water, sunlight]; animals [air, shelter]).

 

S3.B.3.2.2   Describe how changes in the environment (e.g., fire, flood) can affect an ecosystem.

 

S3.B.3.2.3   Describe how human interactions with the environment impact an ecosystem (e.g., road construction, pollution, urban development, dam building).

 

Grade 4

 

S4.A.1.1.1   Distinguish between a scientific fact and an opinion, providing clear explanations that connect observations and results (e.g., a scientific fact can be supported by making observations).

 

S4.A.1.1.2   Identify and describe examples of common technological changes past to present in the community (e.g., energy production, transportation, communications, agriculture, packaging materials) that have either positive or negative impacts on society or the environment.

 

S4.A.1.3.1   Observe and record change by using time and measurement.

 

S4.A.1.3.3   Observe and describe the change to objects caused by temperature change or light.

 

S4.A.1.3.5   Provide examples, predict, or describe how everyday human activities (e.g., solid waste production, food production and consumption, transportation, water consumption, energy production and use) may change the environment.

 

S4.A.2.1.1   Generate questions about objects, organisms, or events that can be answered through scientific investigations.

 

S4.A.2.1.2   Design and describe an investigation (a fair test) to test one variable.

 

S4.A.2.1.4   State a conclusion that is consistent with the information/data.

 

S4.A.2.2.1   Identify appropriate tools or instruments for specific tasks and describe the information they can provide (e.g., measuring: length - ruler, mass - balance scale, volume - beaker, temperature - thermometer; making observations: hand lens, binoculars, telescope).

 

S4.A.3.1.1   Categorize systems as either natural or human-made (e.g., ballpoint pens, simple electrical circuits, plant anatomy, water cycle).

 

S4.A.3.1.2   Explain a relationship between the living and nonliving components in a system (e.g., food web, terrarium).

 

S4.A.3.1.3   Categorize the parts of an ecosystem as either living or nonliving and describe their roles in the system.

 

S4.A.3.2.1   Identify what different models represent (e.g., maps show physical features, directions, distances; globes represent Earth; drawings of watersheds depict terrain; dioramas show ecosystems; concept maps show relationships of ideas).

 

S4.A.3.2.2   Use models to make observations to explain how systems work (e.g., water cycle, Sun-Earth-Moon system).

 

S4.A.3.2.3   Use appropriate, simple modeling tools and techniques to describe or illustrate a system (e.g., two cans and string to model a communications system, terrarium to model an ecosystem).

 

S4.B.3.1.1   Describe the living and nonliving components of a local ecosystem (e.g., lentic and lotic systems, forest, cornfield, grasslands, city park, playground).

 

S4.B.3.1.2   Describe interactions between living and nonliving components (e.g. plants – water, soil, sunlight, carbon dioxide, temperature; animals – food, water, shelter, oxygen, temperature) of a local ecosystem.

 

Grade 5

 

S5.A.1.1.1   Explain how certain questions can be answered through scientific inquiry and/or technological design (e.g., investigate to find out if all clay or foil boats designs react the same when filled with paperclips).

 

S5.A.1.1.2   Explain how observations and/or experimental results are used to support inferences and claims about an investigation or relationship (e.g., make a claim based on information on a graph).

 

S5.A.1.1.3   Describe how explanations, predictions, and models are developed using evidence.

 

S5.A.2.1.1   Design a simple, controlled experiment (fair test) identifying the independent and dependent variables, how the dependent variable will be measured and which variables will be held constant (e.g., relate the effect of variables [mass, release height, length of string] to number of swings of a pendulum, investigate the relationships between variables in paper airplane designs).

 

S5.A.2.1.2   Describe relationships between variables through interpretation of data and observations (i.e., make predictions for the outcome of a controlled experiment using data tables and graphs).

 

S5.A.2.2.2   Explain how technology extends and enhances human abilities for specific purposes (e.g., use hand lens to examine crystals in evaporation dishes; use graduated cylinders to measure the amount of water used in a controlled plant experiment).

 

S5.A.3.2.1   Describe how models are used to better understand the relationships in natural systems (e.g., water cycle, SunEarth Moon system, ecosystems, observe and draw a diagram to show the effects of flowing water in a watershed).

 

S5.B.3.2.2   Describe the usefulness of Earth’s physical resources as raw materials for the humanmade world.

 

S6.A.1.1.1   Explain how certain questions can be answered through scientific inquiry and/or technological design (e.g., consumer product testing, common usage of simple machines, modern inventions).

 

S6.A.1.1.2   Use evidence to support inferences and claims about an investigation or relationship (e.g., common usage of simple machines).

 

S6.A.1.1.3   Predict the outcome of an experiment based on previously collected data.

 

S5.A.1.1.3   Describe how explanations, predictions, and models are developed using evidence.

 

S5.A.2.1.1   Design a simple, controlled experiment (fair test) identifying the independent and dependent variables, how the dependent variable will be measured and which variables will be held constant (e.g., relate the effect of variables [mass, release height, length of string] to number of swings of a pendulum, investigate the relationships between variables in paper airplane designs).

 

S5.A.2.1.2   Describe relationships between variables through interpretation of data and observations (i.e., make predictions for the outcome of a controlled experiment using data tables and graphs).

 

S5.A.2.2.2   Explain how technology extends and enhances human abilities for specific purposes (e.g., use hand lens to examine crystals in evaporation dishes; use graduated cylinders to measure the amount of water used in a controlled plant experiment).

 

Grade 6

 

S6.A.1.1.1   Explain how certain questions can be answered through scientific inquiry and/or technological design (e.g., consumer product testing, common usage of simple machines, modern inventions).

 

S6.A.1.1.2   Use evidence to support inferences and claims about an investigation or relationship (e.g., common usage of simple machines).

 

S6.A.1.1.3   Predict the outcome of an experiment based on previously collected data.

 

S6.A.1.2.1   Use evidence, observations, or explanations to make inferences about changes in systems over time.

 

S6.A.1.2.2   Identify variables that cause changes in natural or human-made systems.

 

S6.A.2.1.1   Use evidence, observations, or a variety of scales to describe relationships.

 

S6.A.2.1.2   Identify variables that cause changes in natural or human-made systems.

 

S6.A.2.2.1   Describe ways technology extends and enhances human abilities for specific purposes (e.g., make observations of cells with a microscope and planets with a telescope).

 

S6.A.3.1.1   Describe a system as a group of related parts with specific roles that work together to achieve an observed result.

 

S6.A.3.1.2 Explain how components of natural and human-made systems play different roles in a working system.

 

NEW YORK, NEW JERSEY, MARYLAND CORE STANDARDS

 

Kindergarten

 

ETS1.A: Defining Engineering Problems

·      A situation that people want to change or create can be approached as a problem to be solved through engineering. Such problems may have many acceptable solutions. (secondary to K-PS2-2)

 

PS3.B: Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer

·      Sunlight warms Earth’s surface. (K-PS3-1), (K-PS3-2)

 

ESS3.C: Human Impacts on Earth Systems

·      Things that people do to live comfortably can affect the world around them. But they can make choices that reduce their impacts on the land, water, air, and other living things. (secondary to K-ESS2-2)

 

ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting an Engineering Problem

·      Asking questions, making observations, and gathering information are helpful in thinking about problems. (secondary to K-ESS3-2)

 

ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions

·      Designs can be conveyed through sketches, drawings, or physical models. These representations are useful in communicating ideas for a problem’s solutions to other people. (secondary to K-ESS3-3)

 

ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems

·      A situation that people want to change or create can be approached as a problem to be solved through engineering. (K-2-ETS1-1)

·      Asking questions, making observations, and gathering information are helpful in thinking about problems. (K-2-ETS1-1)

·      Before beginning to design a solution, it is important to clearly understand the problem. (K-2-ETS1-1)

 

ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions

·      Designs can be conveyed through sketches, drawings, or physical models. These representations are useful in communicating ideas for a problem’s solutions to other people. (K-2-ETS1-2)

 

ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution

·      Because there is always more than one possible solution to a problem, it is useful to compare and test designs. (K -2-ETS1-3)

 

Grade 1

 

PS4.B: Electromagnetic Radiation

·      Objects can be seen if light is available to illuminate them or if they give off their own light. (1-PS4-2)

·      Some materials allow light to pass through them, others allow only some light through and others block all the light and create a dark shadow on any surface beyond them, where the light cannot reach. Mirrors can be used to redirect a light beam. (Boundary: The idea that light travels from place to place is developed through experiences with light sources, mirrors, and shadows, but no attempt is made to discuss the speed of light.) (1-PS4-3)

 

PS4.C: Information Technologies and Instrumentation

·      People also use a variety of devices to communicate (send and receive information) over long distances. (1-PS4-4)

 

LS1.D: Information Processing

·      Animals have body parts that capture and convey different kinds of information needed for growth and survival. Animals respond to these inputs with behaviors that help them survive. Plants also respond to some external inputs. (1-LS1-1)

 

ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems

·      A situation that people want to change or create can be approached as a problem to be solved through engineering. (K-2-ETS1-1)

·      Asking questions, making observations, and gathering information are helpful in thinking about problems. (K-2-ETS1-1)

·      Before beginning to design a solution, it is important to clearly understand the problem. (K-2-ETS1-1)

 

ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions

·      Designs can be conveyed through sketches, drawings, or physical models. These representations are useful in communicating ideas for a problem’s solutions to other people. (K-2-ETS1-2)

 

ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution

·      Because there is always more than one possible solution to a problem, it is useful to compare and test designs. (K -2-ETS1-3)

 

Grade 2

 

PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter

·      Different kinds of matter exist and many of them can be either solid or liquid, depending on temperature. Matter can be described and classified by its observable properties. (2-PS1-1)

·      Different properties are suited to different purposes. (2-PS1-2), (2-PS1-3)

·      A great variety of objects can be built up from a small set of pieces. (2-PS1-3)

 

PS1.B: Chemical Reactions

·      Heating or cooling a substance may cause changes that can be observed. Sometimes these changes are reversible, and sometimes they are not. (2-PS1-4)

 

LS2.A: Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems

·      Plants depend on water and light to grow. (2-LS2-1)

·      Plants depend on animals for pollination or to move their seeds around. (2-LS2-2)

 

ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions

·      Designs can be conveyed through sketches, drawings, or physical models. These representations are useful in communicating ideas for a problem’s solutions to other people. (secondary to 2-LS2-2)

 

ETS1.C : Optimizing the Design Solution

·      Because there is always more than one possible solution to a problem, it is useful to compare and test designs. (secondary to 2-ESS2-1)

 

ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems

·      A situation that people want to change or create can be approached as a problem to be solved through engineering. (K-2-ETS1-1)

·      Asking questions, making observations, and gathering information are helpful in thinking about problems. (K-2-ETS1-1)

·      Before beginning to design a solution, it is important to clearly understand the problem. (K-2-ETS1-1)

 

ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions

·      Designs can be conveyed through sketches, drawings, or physical models. These representations are useful in communicating ideas for a problem’s solutions to other people. (K-2-ETS1-2)

 

ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution

·      Because there is always more than one possible solution to a problem, it is useful to compare and test designs. (K -2-ETS1-3)

 

Grade 3

 

PS2.B: Types of Interactions

·      Objects in contact exert forces on each other. (3-PS2-1)

·      Electric and magnetic forces between a pair of objects do not require that the objects be in contact. The sizes of the forces in each situation depend on the properties of the objects and their distances apart and, for forces between two magnets, on their orientation relative to each other. (3-PS2-3),(3 -PS2-4)

 

ESS2.D: Weather and Climate

·      Scientists record patterns of the weather across different times and areas so that they can make predictions about what kind of weather might happen next.

(3-ESS2-1)

·      Climate describes a range of an area's typical weather conditions and the extent to which those conditions vary over years. (3-ESS2-2)

 

ESS3.B: Natural Hazards

·      A variety of natural hazards result from natural processes. Humans cannot eliminate natural hazards but can take steps to reduce their impacts. (3-ESS3-1) (Note: This Disciplinary Core Idea is also addressed by 4-ESS3-2.)

 

ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems

·      Possible solutions to a problem are limited by available materials and resources (constraints). The success of a designed solution is determined by considering the desired features of a solution (criteria). Different proposals for solutions can be compared on the basis of how well each one meets the specified criteria for success or how well each takes the constraints into account. (3-5-ETS1-1)

 

ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions

·      Research on a problem should be carried out before beginning to design a solution. Testing a solution involves investigating how well it performs under a range of likely conditions. (3 -5-ETS1-2)

·      At whatever stage, communicating with peers about proposed solutions is an important part of the design process, and shared ideas can lead to improved designs. (3 -5-ETS1-2)

·      Tests are often designed to identify failure points or difficulties, which suggest the elements of the design that need to be improved. (3 -5-ETS1-3)

 

ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution

·      Different solutions need to be tested in order to determine which of them best solves the problem, given the criteria and the constraints. (3 -5-ETS1-3)

 

Grade 4

 

PS3.A: Definitions of Energy

·      The faster a given object is moving, the more energy it possesses. (4-PS3-1)

·      Energy can be moved from place to place by moving objects or through sound, light, or electric currents. (4-PS3-2), (4-PS3-3)

 

PS3.B: Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer

·      Energy is present whenever there are moving objects, sound, light, or heat. When objects collide, energy can be transferred from one object to another, thereby changing their motion. In such collisions, some energy is typically also transferred to the surrounding air; as a result, the air gets heated and sound is produced. (4-PS3-2), (4-PS3-3)

·      Light also transfers energy from place to place. (4-PS3-2)

·      Energy can also be transferred from place to place by electric currents, which can then be used locally to produce motion, sound, heat, or light. The currents may have been produced to begin with by transforming the energy of motion into electrical energy. (4-PS3-2), (4-PS3-4)

 

PS3.C: Relationship Between Energy and Forces

·      When objects collide, the contact forces transfer energy so as to change the objects’ motions. (4-PS3-3)

 

PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes and Everyday Life

·      The expression “produce energy” typically refers to the conversion of stored energy into a desired form for practical use. (4-PS3-4)

 

ETS1.A : Defining Engineering Problems

·      Possible solutions to a problem are limited by available materials and resources (constraints). The success of a designed solution is determined by considering the desired features of a solution (criteria). Different proposals for solutions can be compared on the basis of how well each one meets the specified criteria for success or how well each takes the constraints into account. (secondary to 4-PS3-4)

 

PS4.B: Electromagnetic Radiation

·      An object can be seen when light reflected from its surface enters the eyes.

 (4-PS4-2)

 

PS4.C: Information Technologies and Instrumentation

·      Digitized information can be transmitted over long distances without significant degradation. High-tech devices, such as computers or cell phones, can receive and decode information—convert it from digitized form to voice—and vice versa.

(4-PS4-3)

 

ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution

·      Different solutions need to be tested in order to determine which of them best solves the problem, given the criteria and the constraints. (secondary to 4-PS4-3)

 

LS1.D: Information Processing

·      Different sense receptors are specialized for particular kinds of information, which may be then processed by the animal’s brain. Animals are able to use their perceptions and memories to guide their actions. (4-LS1-2)

 

ESS2.E: Biogeology

·      Living things affect the physical characteristics of their regions. (4-ESS2-1)

 

ESS3.A: Natural Resources

·      Energy and fuels that humans use are derived from natural sources, and their use affects the environment in multiple ways. Some resources are renewable over time, and others are not. (4-ESS3-1)

 

ESS3.B: Natural Hazards

·      A variety of hazards result from natural processes (e.g., earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions). Humans cannot eliminate the hazards but can take steps to reduce their impacts. (4-ESS3-2) (Note: This Disciplinary Core Idea can also be found in 3.WC.)

 

ETS1.B: Designing Solutions to Engineering Problems

·      Testing a solution involves investigating how well it performs under a range of likely conditions. (secondary to 4-ESS3-2)

 

ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems

·      Possible solutions to a problem are limited by available materials and resources (constraints). The success of a designed solution is determined by considering the desired features of a solution (criteria). Different proposals for solutions can be compared on the basis of how well each one meets the specified criteria for success or how well each takes the constraints into account. (3-5-ETS1-1)

 

ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions

·      Research on a problem should be carried out before beginning to design a solution. Testing a solution involves investigating how well it performs under a range of likely conditions. (3 -5-ETS1-2)

·      At whatever stage, communicating with peers about proposed solutions is an important part of the design process, and shared ideas can lead to improved designs. (3 -5-ETS1-2)

·      Tests are often designed to identify failure points or difficulties, which suggest the elements of the design that need to be improved. (3 -5-ETS1-3)

 

ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution

·      Different solutions need to be tested in order to determine which of them best solves the problem, given the criteria and the constraints. (3 -5-ETS1-3)

 

Grade 5

 

PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter

·      Matter of any type can be subdivided into particles that are too small to see, but even then the matter still exists and can be detected by other means. A model showing that gases are made from matter particles that are too small to see and are moving freely around in space can explain many observations, including the inflation and shape of a balloon and the effects of air on larger particles or objects. (5-PS1-1)

·      The amount (weight) of matter is conserved when it changes form, even in transitions in which it seems to vanish. (5-PS1-2)

·      Measurements of a variety of properties can be used to identify materials. (Boundary: At this grade level, mass and weight are not distinguished, and no attempt is made to define the unseen particles or explain the atomic-scale mechanism of evaporation and condensation.) (5-PS1-3)

 

PS1.B: Chemical Reactions

·      When two or more different substances are mixed, a new substance with different properties may be formed. (5-PS1-4)

·      No matter what reaction or change in properties occurs, the total weight of the substances does not change. (Boundary: Mass and weight are not distinguished at this grade level.) (5-PS1-2)

 

PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes and Everyday Life

·      The energy released [from] food was once energy from the sun that was captured by plants in the chemical process that forms plant matter (from air and water).

(5-PS3-1)

 

LS2.B: Cycles of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems

·      Matter cycles between the air and soil and among plants, animals, and microbes as these organisms live and die. Organisms obtain gases, and water, from the environment, and release waste matter (gas, liquid, or solid) back into the environment. (5-LS2-1)

 

ESS3.C: Human Impacts on Earth Systems

·      Human activities in agriculture, industry, and everyday life have had major effects on the land, vegetation, streams, ocean, air, and even outer space. But individuals and communities are doing things to help protect Earth’s resources and environments. (5 -ESS3-1)

 

ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems

·      Possible solutions to a problem are limited by available materials and resources (constraints). The success of a designed solution is determined by considering the desired features of a solution (criteria). Different proposals for solutions can be compared on the basis of how well each one meets the specified criteria for success or how well each takes the constraints into account. (3-5-ETS1-1)

 

ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions

·      Research on a problem should be carried out before beginning to design a solution. Testing a solution involves investigating how well it performs under a range of likely conditions. (3 -5-ETS1-2)

·      At whatever stage, communicating with peers about proposed solutions is an important part of the design process, and shared ideas can lead to improved designs. (3 -5-ETS1-2)

·      Tests are often designed to identify failure points or difficulties, which suggest the elements of the design that need to be improved. (3 -5-ETS1-3)

 

ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution

·      Different solutions need to be tested in order to determine which of them best solves the problem, given the criteria and the constraints. (3 -5-ETS1-3)

 

Grade 6

 

ESS2.D: Weather and Climate

·      The foundation for Earth’s global climate systems is the electromagnetic radiation from the sun, as well as its reflection, absorption, storage, and redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and land systems, and this energy’s re-radiation into space. (HS-ESS2-2), (HS -ESS2-4)

·      Gradual atmospheric changes were due to plants and other organisms that captured carbon dioxide and released oxygen. (HS-ESS2-6),( HS-ESS2-7)

·      Changes in the atmosphere due to human activity have increased carbon dioxide concentrations and thus affect climate. (HS -ESS2-6), (HS-ESS2-4)

 

ESS3.A: Natural Resources

·      Resource availability has guided the development of human society. (HS-ESS3-1)

·      All forms of energy production and other resource extraction have associated economic, social, environmental, and geopolitical costs and risks as well as benefits. New technologies and social regulations can change the balance of these factors. (HS-ESS3-2)

 

ESS3.C: Human Impacts on Earth Systems

·      The sustainability of human societies and the biodiversity that supports them requires responsible management of natural resources. (HS-ESS3-3)

·      Scientists and engineers can make major contributions by developing technologies that produce less pollution and waste and that preclude ecosystem degradation. (HS -ESS3-4)

 

ESS3.D: Global Climate Change

·      Though the magnitudes of human impacts are greater than they have ever been, so too are human abilities to model, predict, and manage current and future impacts. (HS-ESS3-5)

·      Through computer simulations and other studies, important discoveries are still being made about how the ocean, the atmosphere, and the biosphere interact and are modified in response to human activities. (HS -ESS3-6)

 

ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions

·      When evaluating solutions, it is important to take into account a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics, and to consider social, cultural, and environmental impacts. (secondary to HS-ESS3-2),

(secondary HS-ESS3-4)

 

ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems

·      Criteria and constraints also include satisfying any requirements set by society, such as taking issues of risk mitigation into account, and they should be quantified to the extent possible and stated in such a way that one can tell if a given design meets them. (HS-ETS1-1)

·      Humanity faces major global challenges today, such as the need for supplies of clean water and food or for energy sources that minimize pollution, which can be addressed through engineering. These global challenges also may have manifestations in local communities. (HS-ETS1-1)

 

ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions

·      When evaluating solutions, it is important to take into account a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics, and to consider social, cultural, and environmental impacts. (HS-ETS1-3)

·      Both physical models and computers can be used in various ways to aid in the engineering design process. Computers are useful for a variety of purposes, such as running simulations to test different ways of solving a problem or to see which one is most efficient or economical; and in making a persuasive presentation to a client about how a given design will meet his or her needs. (HS-ETS1-4)

 

ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution

·      Criteria may need to be broken down into simpler ones that can be approached systematically, and decisions about the priority of certain criteria over others (trade-offs) may be needed. (HS-ETS1-2)

 

LS1.A: Structure and Function

·      Systems of specialized cells within organisms help them perform the essential functions of life. (HS-LS1-1)

·      All cells contain genetic information in the form of DNA molecules. Genes are regions in the DNA that contain the instructions that code for the formation of proteins, which carry out most of the work of cells. (HS-LS1-1) (Note: This Disciplinary Core Idea is also addressed by HS-LS3-1.)

·      Multicellular organisms have a hierarchical structural organization, in which any one system is made up of numerous parts and is itself a component of the next level. (HS-LS1-2)

·      Feedback mechanisms maintain a living system’s internal conditions within certain limits and mediate behaviors, allowing it to remain alive and functional even as external conditions change within some range. Feedback mechanisms can encourage (through positive feedback) or discourage (negative feedback) what is going on inside the living system. (HS-LS1-3)

 

LS1.B: Growth and Development of Organisms

·      In multicellular organisms individual cells grow and then divide via a process called mitosis, thereby allowing the organism to grow. The organism begins as a single cell (fertilized egg) that divides successively to produce many cells, with each parent cell passing identical genetic material (two variants of each chromosome pair) to both daughter cells. Cellular division and differentiation produce and maintain a complex organism, composed of systems of tissues and organs that work together to meet the needs of the whole organism. (HS-LS1-4)

 

LS1.C: Organization for Matter and Energy Flow in Organisms

·      The process of photosynthesis converts light energy to stored chemical energy by converting carbon dioxide plus water into sugars plus released oxygen. (HS-LS1-5)

·      The sugar molecules thus formed contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen: their hydrocarbon backbones are used to make amino acids and other carbon-based molecules that can be assembled into larger molecules (such as proteins or DNA), used for example to form new cells. (HS-LS1-6)

·      As matter and energy flow through different organizational levels of living systems, chemical elements are recombined in different ways to form different products. (HS-LS1-6), (HS-LS1-7)

·      As a result of these chemical reactions, energy is transferred from one system of interacting molecules to another. Cellular respiration is a chemical process in which the bonds of food molecules and oxygen molecules are broken and new compounds are formed that can transport energy to muscles. Cellular respiration also releases the energy needed to maintain body temperature despite ongoing energy transfer to the surrounding environment. (HS-LS1-7)

 

LS2.B: Cycles of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems

·      Photosynthesis and cellular respiration (including anaerobic processes) provide most of the energy for life processes. (HS-LS2-3)

·      Plants or algae form the lowest level of the food web. At each link upward in a food web, only a small fraction of the matter consumed at the lower level is transferred upward, to produce growth and release energy in cellular respiration at the higher level. Given this inefficiency, there are generally fewer organisms at higher levels of a food web. Some matter reacts to release energy for life functions, some matter is stored in newly made structures, and much is discarded. The chemical elements that make up the molecules of organisms pass through food webs and into and out of the atmosphere and soil, and they are combined and recombined in different ways. At each link in an ecosystem, matter and energy are conserved. (HS-LS2-4)

·      Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are important components of the carbon cycle, in which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, atmosphere, oceans, and geosphere through chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes. (HS-LS2-5)

 

ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions

·      When evaluating solutions it is important to take into account a range of constraints including cost, safety, reliability and aesthetics and to consider social, cultural and environmental impacts. (secondary to HS -LS2-7)

 

ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions

·      When evaluating solutions, it is important to take into account a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics, and to consider social, cultural, and environmental impacts. (secondary to HS-LS4-6)

·      Both physical models and computers can be used in various ways to aid in the engineering design process. Computers are useful for a variety of purposes, such as running simulations to test different ways of solving a problem or to see which one is most efficient or economical; and in making a persuasive presentation to a client about how a given design will meet his or her needs.(secondary to HS-LS4-6)

 

PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter

·      Each atom has a charged substructure consisting of a nucleus, which is made of protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons. (HS -PS1-1)

·      The periodic table orders elements horizontally by the number of protons in the atom’s nucleus and places those with similar chemical properties in columns. The repeating patterns of this table reflect patterns of outer electron states.

(HS-PS1-1), (HS-PS1-2)

·      The structure and interactions of matter at the bulk scale are determined by electrical forces within and between atoms. (HS -PS1-3), (secondary to HS-PS2-6)

·      A stable molecule has less energy than the same set of atoms separated; one must provide at least this energy in order to take the molecule apart. (HS-PS1-4)

 

PS1.B: Chemical Reactions

·      Chemical processes, their rates, and whether or not energy is stored or released can be understood in terms of the collisions of molecules and the rearrangements of atoms into new molecules, with consequent changes in the sum of all bond energies in the set of molecules that are matched by changes in kinetic energy. (HS-PS1-4), (HS -PS1-5)

·      In many situations, a dynamic and condition-dependent balance between a reaction and the reverse reaction determines the numbers of all types of molecules present. (HS -PS1-6)

·      The fact that atoms are conserved, together with knowledge of the chemical properties of the elements involved, can be used to describe and predict chemical reactions. (HS-PS1-2), (HS-PS1-7)

 

PS2.B: Types of Interactions

·      Attraction and repulsion between electric charges at the atomic scale explain the structure, properties, and transformations of matter, as well as the contact forces between material objects. (secondary to HS-PS1-1), (secondary to HS-PS1-3)

 

ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution

·      Criteria may need to be broken down into simpler ones that can be approached systematically, and decisions about the priority of certain criteria over others (trade-offs) may be needed. (secondary to HS-PS1-6)

 

PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter

·      The structure and interactions of matter at the bulk scale are determined by electrical forces within and between atoms. (secondary to HS-PS2-6)

 

PS3.A: Definitions of Energy

·      “Electrical energy” may mean energy stored in a battery or energy transmitted by electric currents. (secondary to HS -PS2-5)

 

ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems

·      Criteria and constraints also include satisfying any requirements set by society, such as taking issues of risk mitigation into account, and they should be quantified to the extent possible and stated in such a way that one can tell if a given design meets them. (secondary to HS-PS2-3)

 

ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution

·      Criteria may need to be broken down into simpler ones that can be approached systematically, and decisions about the priority of certain criteria over others (trade-offs) may be needed. (secondary to HS-PS2-3)

 

PS3.A: Definitions of Energy

·      Energy is a quantitative property of a system that depends on the motion and interactions of matter and radiation within that system. That there is a single quantity called energy is due to the fact that a system’s total energy is conserved, even as, within the system, energy is continually transferred from one object to another and between its various possible forms. (HS-PS3-1), (HS -PS3-2)

·      At the macroscopic scale, energy manifests itself in multiple ways, such as in motion, sound, light, and thermal energy. (HS-PS3-2) (HS-PS3-3)

·      These relationships are better understood at the microscopic scale, at which all of the different manifestations of energy can be modeled as a combination of energy associated with the motion of particles and energy associated with the configuration (relative position of the particles). In some cases the relative position energy can be thought of as stored in fields (which mediate interactions between particles). This last concept includes radiation, a phenomenon in which energy stored in fields moves across space. (HS-PS3-2)

 

PS3.B: Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer

·      Conservation of energy means that the total change of energy in any system is always equal to the total energy transferred into or out of the system. (HS -PS3-1)

·      Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be transported from one place to another and transferred between systems. (HS-PS3-1),( HS-PS3-4)

·      Mathematical expressions, which quantify how the stored energy in a system depends on its configuration (e.g. relative positions of charged particles, compression of a spring) and how kinetic energy depends on mass and speed, allow the concept of conservation of energy to be used to predict and describe system behavior. (HS -PS3-1)

·      The availability of energy limits what can occur in any system. (HS-PS3-1)

·      Uncontrolled systems always evolve toward more stable states—that is, toward more uniform energy distribution (e.g., water flows downhill, objects hotter than their surrounding environment cool down). (HS -PS3-4) PS3.C: Relationship Between Energy and Forces

·      When two objects interacting through a field change relative position, the energy stored in the field is changed. (HS-PS3-5) PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes

·      Although energy cannot be destroyed, it can be converted to less useful forms—for example, to thermal energy in the surrounding environment. (HS-PS3-3),

(HS-PS3-4) ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems

·      Criteria and constraints also include satisfying any requirements set by society, such as taking issues of risk mitigation into account, and they should be quantified to the extent possible and stated in such a way that one can tell if a given design meets them. (secondary to HS-PS3-3)

 

PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes

·      Solar cells are human-made devices that likewise capture the sun’s energy and produce electrical energy. (secondary to HS -PS4-5)

 

PS4.B: Electromagnetic Radiation

·      Electromagnetic radiation (e.g., radio, microwaves, light) can be modeled as a wave of changing electric and magnetic fields or as particles called photons. The wave model is useful for explaining many features of electromagnetic radiation, and the particle model explains other features. (HS-PS4-3)

·      When light or longer wavelength electromagnetic radiation is absorbed in matter, it is generally converted into thermal energy (heat). Shorter wavelength electromagnetic radiation (ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) can ionize atoms and cause damage to living cells. (HS-PS4-4)

·      Photoelectric materials emit electrons when they absorb light of a high-enough frequency. (HS-PS4-5) PS4.C: Information Technologies and Instrumentation

·      Multiple technologies based on the understanding of waves and their interactions with matter are part of everyday experiences in the modern world (e.g., medical imaging, communications, scanners) and in scientific research. They are essential tools for producing, transmitting, and capturing signals and for storing and interpreting the information contained in them. (HS -PS4-5)

National Core Curriculum Standards

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